B3 U3 :: 2011/09/01 16:20

U3 Voc 1-12

1.    location (n) locate (v)

The rescue team had to pinpoint the location of the plane crash. 標出精確位置

The helicopter went on flying over the

mountain to locate the missing mountain

climber. 

The temple is located at the foot of the mountain. 座落在

2.    feel/suffer/express/experience grief over the death of sb. 為亡者哀悼、感到悲痛

Mr. Buffett’s investment in the stock market hardly comes to grief. 

以失敗收場

It grieves a mother to see her children suffer from diseases. 

▫ It is no use grieving for the loss in business.

sorrowgrieve的意思相近,但悲傷的程度較輕;grieve表示內心的痛苦與憂傷,不一定能從外表看出來;mourn則為較正式的用字,表示因為某些特定的原因而感到悲痛,外部表現較為明顯:

¸ Thousands of the superstar’s fans dressed in black to ___________ his death.

3. tremendous

1) 極大的 (= huge, immense)

¸ To win Betty’s heart, Simon spent a tremendous amount of money on the sports car. (一大筆錢)

2) 極好的 (= remarkable)

¸ The food in that restaurant is tremendous. Every dish there is delicious.

4. “re-” 這個字首,置於動詞或其衍生字之前表示「又,再,重新」之意,distribution → redistribution (重新分配)organization → reorganization (重組)production → reproduction (再生)sale → resale (再銷售;轉賣)

construction site (建築工地)

constructive adj. 有建設性的

¸ constructive criticism/advice

5. resident n. 居住者,居民

Œ reside vt. 居住、定居於,常搭配介系詞inat

 residence n. [C] 住所(尤指宅邸,豪宅)

Ž a residential district/area 住宅區

The prime minister of Great Britain

officially resides at Number 10 Downing

Street. 英國首相住在唐寧街十號。

The Buckingham Palace is the residence of Queen Elizabeth II.  

白金漢宮是女王伊莉莎白二世的宅邸。

6. assistant professor 助理教授

teaching assistant 教學助理 (= TA)

personal digital assistance

智慧型手機 (= PDA)

sales assistant/clerk 售貨員,店員 shop assistant

7. source 常易與resource 混淆,不過兩者字義不同,resource 代表「資源;資金」之意, natural resources 天然資源

Newsworthy reports must be derived from reliable sources. 

具新聞價值的報導必須得自可靠來源。

according to well-informed sources
據消息靈通人士指出

8. vital

同義essential, indispensable, crucial

¸ It is vital that we (shoud) cooperate to carry out the project.

9. disaster à disastrous

字尾“-ous”置於名詞或動詞後,以形成形容詞,表示「充滿的」的意思,本課第18個單字anxious 亦同此原則。
¸ ridicule → ridiculous 荒謬的
¸ courage → courageous 英勇的
¸ rebellion → rebellious 反叛的
¸ contagion → contagious 傳染性的

11. 同義 proper, suitable ßà inappropriate

¸ In Chinese culture, it is not appropriate to wear red clothes to a funeral, nor should we wear sandals to a formal party.

12. recovery room (手術)恢復室

recover v.

1) Teresa recovered from her illness after taking the medicine regularly. 恢復,復原

2) I went to the police station to recover my stolen valuables. 取回(失物等),重新獲得

3) The government promised the farmers that it would recover the damage caused by the violent typhoon. 彌補(損失)

4) Mandy had recovered consciousness before the doctor showed up. 恢復(意識、能力等) (= regain)

Reading 1-25

1.同位語

1. Barack Obama, the first African-American president of the United State, is a graduate of Harvard Law School.

2. Susie recommends me House, M. D. , a famous American television medical drama.

Mom can’t stand the smell of Natto __________ fermented soybeans.

(A) the Japanese   (B) . The Japanese   (C) , the Japanese   (D) of the Japanese’

2. It takes A to V …需要A

說 明

It是虛主詞,代替後面的不定詞片語to V。若要表明不定詞的動作執行者則可寫作It takes sb A to VIt takes A for sb to V

例 句

1. It takes love and patience to teach children.

2. It took Joseph a whole week to complete his report.

3. result from . . .  起因於…

 

 


 

說 明

A起因於B: A result from B = A be the result of B = B result in A 

result fromresult inresult為動詞;be the result ofresult則為名詞。

例 句

1. That accident resulted from drunken driving.

Drunken driving resulted in that accident.

2. The child’s death resulted from an overdose of medicine.

  The child’s death was the result of an overdose of medicine.  

An overdose of medicine resulted in the child’s death.

4. some . . . others . . .

  some of . . . the others . . .   有些…有些…

 

 

說 明

這兩個句型的someothers皆為代名詞,係指前文提及的複數可數名詞。some若後接ofothers前必須加定冠詞the,表示有所限定。

例 句

1. There are countless books in the bookstore. Some sell well; others don’t.

2. Some of my relatives believe in Christianity; the others believe in Buddhism.

I’ve got friends with different personalities. Some of them are aggressive and outgoing; the others are rather shy and elusive. 害羞低調

5. what's more 再者;更甚者

 

 


 

說 明

本片語與moreoverfurthermorebesides等副詞意思相同,用來對某一論點做追加說明。

類似用法

in addition

例 句

1. The color of the slippers didn’t appeal to me; what’s more, the price was too high.

2. I always buy fruit and vegetables in season. They taste better; what’s more, they are much cheaper.  

6. pay attention to N 關注、注意某事

 

類似用法

give attention to N

例 句

1. Parents should pay more attention to their children, especially during their adolescence.

(青春期)

2. Our teacher took us on a field trip to a retirement home, encouraging us to give more attention to the elderly.  

3. Till now, little attention has been paid to the rights of the ethnic minority.  

補 充

catch/get/attract sb’s attention吸引某人的注意力

例 句

Knowing that the topic was boring, the speaker asked questions to attract the audiences’ attention.

It is hard for me to ____ full attention to the teacher. I doze off all the time.

Voc 13-24

13. organ donation 器官捐贈

The famous actress offers to make a donation of ten thousand dollars to her alma mater every semester to establish a scholarship in her name.

14. Oil is the raw material for plastic. (生的,未加工的) 

What I pursue is not only material comforts/pleasure, but spiritual fulfillment.

15. survival kit 救生包,救生箱

the survival of the fittest 適者生存

Sid was so lucky as to survive the car crash. Sid幸運地在車禍中倖免於難

16. physical物質的,實體的

physics (n) 物理

身體的,生理的= bodily ßà mental

physical education (PE class)

physical checkups/examinations

physical appearance

17. reactionreact常搭配介系詞to表「對…起反應」。字根: act

同義: response (n); respond (v) 偏向口頭反應

How did the writer react to the readers’ opinions?

Most babies have an allergic reaction to second-hand smoke and pets’ fur.

18. As a mother, I am always anxious about my son’s safety. =worried

The teacher was anxious to know the test results of her students. =keen, eager

19. Without a secure source of income, he feels insecure about his future.

The police play an important role in maintaining social order and security.

security guard 保全人員

21. Mutual respect is the key to any human relationship.

I know that Tina is pregnant through a mutual friend. (=common)

22. = treasure (v.)

23. Many earthquake victims were scarred for life.

使受創傷= traumatize

emotional scar

physical scar

24. Time heals all wounds. 及物

The wound heals, but the scar remains. 不及物

healing (a) (n) 療癒,治療

healing process; alternative healing: herbs, acupuncture

Reading 26-51

7. S + could/should/might (+ not) + have + V-en 表與過去相反句型

 

 

說 明

過去式助動詞加have + pp與過去事實相反,表達懊悔、惋惜、或推測的語意。

例 句

1. Robert didn’t work hard enough to pass the entrance examination last summer. He should have worked harder.  (Robert去年不夠努力,沒能通過夏天的入學考試。他應該更用功一點才是。)

2. Without taking a taxi to the airport, Lisa would have failed to catch the plane this morning.

(要是沒搭計程車,Lisa今早就趕不上飛機了。)

3.    Britney could have studied abroad, but her father fell ill suddenly, and she had to stay home to take care of him.   (Britney原可出國深造,但她父親突然病倒,她必須留在家照顧他。)

以下分別探討這三個助動詞所表示的意義:

1 could have V-en表示「有能力做而未做」,由於有能力可以做卻沒做,所以它表達的懊悔、可惜程度勝於should have V-en。同時,這也顯示了說話者主觀認定,主詞是「有能力」做到的,例:

¸ The Red Sox could have won the game if they changed their pitcher earlier.

    另外,could have V-en也可延伸用以表示「推測過去某事本來可能發生(但沒發生)」,例:

¸ The fire could have caused a tragedy, but thanks to those firefighters, everyone came out of the building safe and sound.

¸ You could have died in the crash if you hadn’t fastened the seat belt.

2 should have V-en 表示「該做而未做」,因此多半用在「懊悔、覺得可惜」的情況下。它在意義上並不牽涉到主詞是否有能力做到,而只是著眼在「應該做」,例:

¸ I should have known better that this was not the way to get things done.

¸ You should have gone to bed earlier. See, you miss the English class again.

3 might have V-en 表示「過去有可能發生的」,所以是推測的性質居多,而且說話者並不確定真正的實情。例:

¸ I might have left my purse at home.

¸ Jason is not home. He might have gone on a vacation yesterday.

文法加油站

在「與過去事實相反」的假設語氣中,would + have + V-en常用來表示「假如過去事件A發生了,則過去事件B早就發生了」。事實上,「過去事件A並沒有發生」,所以,過去事件B也因此沒有發生,例:

¸ If Mike had gone to the job interview last week, he would have been hired immediately.

本句的意思為「如果Mike上週去面試,他早就被當場錄用了」。然而,事實上,Mike上週沒有去面試,因此,「他被當場錄用」一事,也當然沒有發生。

此用法所要求的「因果關係」非常明確且肯定,並且在多數狀況下,都需用到if引導的假設子句,如此全句在語意上及邏輯上才能完整、成立。

 

8. serve as . . .  當作…之用,能有…作用

 

同義:function as, act as

例 句

1. In Taiwan, ginger tea often serves as an alternative remedy for cold.

(在臺灣,薑茶常被當作另一種治療感冒的藥方。)

2. The collapse of Lehman brothers should serve as a lesson to businessmen around the world.

(雷曼兄弟垮台的教訓應對全世界的生意人有警惕作用。)

3. What is special about this sofa is that it can also serve as a bed.

9. gesture 姿勢,手勢,表示

We throw a party for our new colleagues as a gesture of friendship.

我們為新同事舉辦了一個聚會, 以示友善。

Handshake is a gesture of friendship.

握手是一種友好的表示。

10. enable sb to do sth 使某人能夠做某事

 

例 句

1. Cell phones enable people to get in touch with each other whenever and wherever they like.    

  (手機使人隨時隨地都能互相聯絡。)

2. Jet planes enable tourists to go traveling rapidly and comfortably.

  (噴射機使觀光客能迅速舒適地到各地旅遊。)

 

 

 

引用地址 :: http://203.64.138.5/blog/rosacjlee/trackback/147
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B3 U1 :: 2011/08/23 14:26

U1 Voc 1-8

1.

food chain 食物鏈

fast food chain 速食連鎖店

chain store 連鎖商店

chain reaction 連鎖反應

ball and chain 限制,約束

A chain of events resulted in Tim’s        immigration to the United States. (一連串的事件)

chain vt. 拴住,束縛

You don’t need to worry about being bitten by the dog because it is chained.

2. employ (v) 利用,運用

¸ The teacher encourages the students to employ different methods to solve the problem.

¸ The vacant lot is employed as a playground.

¸ Most of my classmates are in employment, except for Rita. (在業有工作)

The unemployed are in desperate need of economic help. (失業者 統稱)

employer vs. employee

The employer paid his employees high wages and fringe benefits (額外福利).

Nancy’s boss is not a good employer; he treats all his employees badly.

額外補充

字尾“-ee”通常置於動詞後方,表示該動作的接受者,和字尾“-er”表示從事該動作的人意思不同。

¸ invite → invitee 受邀者

¸ examine → examinee 應試者

¸ nominate → nominee 被提名人

¸ interview → interviewee 受訪者

3. rage (v) 憤怒 + at/against

I am sorry for having raged at you earlier.

¸ The frustrated businessman raged against/at his bad luck.

(疾病、大火、戰火) 流行肆虐

A great cholera epidemic raged across Europe in 1831.

Civil war has been raging in the country for years.

The fire raged for twelve hours.

4. chill n.  寒氣  小感冒

¸ Remember to bring a light jacket with you, for there is a chill in the air today.

¸ The horrible scene sent a chill down my spine. (使毛骨悚然)

¸ Many people caught a chill due to the ever-changing weather.

chill vt.  (使)變冷

¸ Adam was chilled to the bone/marrow for having been out in the cold for so long.

(覺得寒冷刺骨)

¸ Ann put some ice into the glass to chill the root beer. (冰鎮)

6. approach v.

¸ The train is approaching. Don’t stand close to the platform edge.

¸ It’s freezing cold. I guess the temperature is approaching 0.

approach n.  要求  處理方式

¸ The bank made an approach to the government for financial assistance.

¸ There are several approaches to measuring the height of the tower.

7. flat adj. 無趣的,乏味的

as flat as a pancake (非常平坦)

¸ The joke is so flat that nobody laughed at it.

á flat n. 洩氣的輪胎  (pl.) 平底鞋

¸ We got a flat halfway, so Dad changed it.

¸ It is more comfortable to wear flats than high heels.

8. aid n. (fml.) 幫助,援助

¸ The rescue team came/went/hurried/rushed to the hikers’ aid when they were stranded in the mountains.

字詞搭配

first aid 急救     first aid kit 急救箱   medical aid 醫療援助

financial aid 財務援助

¸ The teacher used many visual aids to teach vocabulary, such as flash cards.

*aidhomonym(同音異字)aide,其意為「助手,助理」。

Reading 1-30

1. S2 + had + V2-en . . . since + N(P) / S1 + V1-ed . . .  過去完成式

 

說 明

此句型表過去某一時間點發生的動作或狀態。其主要子句的動作或狀態沒有持續至今,故時態為過去完成式。since引導的子句多為「某事的起始點」,時態為簡單過去式,其發生時間點較主要子句的動詞早。

例 句

1. Eda had worked in France since she graduated from college.

(Eda大學畢業後曾在法國工作過。)

2. Leo had been very depressed since Lily dumped him.

(Leo在被Lily拋棄後一度非常的沮喪。)

3. I had had a stomachache since I got up yesterday.

(昨天起床之後,我胃痛了一會兒。)

 

若表從過去某一時間點持續至今的動作或狀態,主要子句使用現在完成式。

例 句

1. Meg and I have been roommates since we were freshmen. Till now, we still live together.  

(我和Meg從大一開始到現在一直是室友。直到現在,我們還是住在一起。)

2. I have worked for this company since I got my PhD degree.

(取得博士學位後我一直在這家公司工作。)

2. can/could tell that . . .  能夠知道…,能夠看出…

 

 

 

 

 

說 明

tell作知道、認知解時,還可與介系詞fromby或是howwhenwhetherif連用。

例 句

1. Stop faking it, I can tell that you are lying.

2. You better leave Joe alone. I can tell from his voice that he is in a bad mood.

3. I can’t tell whether it is going to rain or not.  

3. V2-ing . . . , S + V1 . . .  分詞構句

 

 

 

說 明

分詞構句係由副詞子句簡化而來,可用來表「時間」、「原因」、「條件」、「讓步」、「附帶狀況」等。分詞構句的形成需副詞子句的主詞和主要子句主詞相同時,1省略副詞子句的主詞2副詞子句的動詞與主要子句的主詞若屬主動關係則改為-ing;若屬被動關係,則簡化為(being/having been +) V2-en, S + V1beinghaving been通常可省略;3省略連接詞。注意當副詞子句為否定句,改為分詞構句時否定詞一律置於分詞之前。

例 句

1. When I was strolling down the street, I saw a cat chasing after a dog.

Strolling down the street, I saw a cat chasing after a dog.

2. If you turn to the left, you will find the house.

   Turning to the left, you will find the house.  

3. As it was written in haste, the book has many mistakes.

   (Being) Written in haste, the book has many mistakes.  

4. Because she did not know what to do, the little girl began to cry.

   Not knowing what to do, the little girl began to cry.  

 

4. While + S2 + be + V2-ing, S1 + V1

S2正在…時,S1

 

 

 

 

 

說 明

while引導的子句動詞(V2)為一個延續性的動作V2的動作比V1早發生,且至少持續至V1發生的當下。在這種狀況下,較早發生且屬延續性的動作(V2)使用進行式;發生時間較短的動作(V1)則使用簡單式。

例 句

1. While they were taking a walk in the park, Steve’s wife told him that she is pregnant.  

2. The teacher asked us to stop writing while I was scrambling to finish the last essay question.

  (當我在囫圇回答最後一道論述題時,老師要求我們停止作答。)

補 充

若主要子句與附屬子句的動作皆為持續性的動作,則皆使用進行式。

例 句

While Flora was making chocolates for her boyfriend, he was watching soap opera.

(Flora在為男朋友做巧克力時,他在看連續劇。)

5. come/go to one's aid 前來/前去幫助某人

 

 

 

類似用法

help sb; give/lend sb a (helping) hand

例 句

1. When I was in trouble, my family would come to my aid/give/lend me a (helping) hand.

2. The rescue team went to the mud-slide victims’ aid.  

Voc 9-17

9. trunk除了指汽車行李箱和樹幹之外,它也有「人體軀幹」、「大旅行箱」、「象鼻」之意,須根據上下文來判定。

10. owe是授予動詞,有直接受詞和間接受詞

owe + sb. + sth.→ owe + sth. + to + sb.

¸ I owe you an apology for not calling you yesterday.

¸ I owe Jeff a favor. He helped me walk my dog this morning.

¸ Vivian lent me some money when I found my wallet stolen. I owe her one.

I always owe what I am to my parents. 

我能有今天全都歸功於我的父母。

11. repay當「償還」時是授予動詞,句型為repay + sb. + sth.repay + sth. + to + sb.

(owe)

You should repay your sister one hundred dollars.

= You should repay one hundred dollars to your sister.

repay當「報答」解時是及物動詞,其受詞後常和介系詞for(表原因)withby(表方式)搭配

▫ We will repay Peter for his warm reception for sure with a gift.

12. grab vt. (infml.) (匆忙地)取,拿 (= snatch); 抓住 (= seize); 把握(機會) (= seize)

¸ The robber made a grab at/for the woman’s handbag, but he failed.

up for grabs (工作、機會等)人人皆可爭取到的
¸ This job is up for grabs to anyone who speaks fluent Japanese.

How does the movie grab you? 對這部電影有興趣嗎?

13. entirely adv. 完全地,徹底地 (= completely)

¸ Professor Li devoted his life entirely to the study of genetic engineering.

15. do/work wonders (for sb/sth)

()創造奇蹟、產生神奇作用

¸ Laughter can do/work wonders for people’s health.

(It is) no wonder (that) 不足為奇

He is always ready to help and serve others. No wonder he is popular among his peers.

16. due to本身即為表示原因的介系詞片語 = owing to

with (all) due respect 恕我直言

Due to the heavy fog, the airport was forced to close.

The last plane to Taipei is due to take off at 5 p.m. (due常與不定詞連用表預定)

With all due respect, I think this project lacks

careful planning.

17. whisper私語,耳語 (= murmur); 謠傳,誤傳 (= rumor)

Walls have ears. I can do nothing but whisper

the landlord’s secret to my roommate. 

My colleague told me the secret in a whisper

for fear that it might be overheard. (低聲地)

There are whispers/rumors that the actress is

having an affair with her gym coach.

Reading 31-56

6. 倍數與比較級連用 

S1 + be/V1 + half/twice/three times + as + adj. /adv. (+ N) + as + S2 (+ V2).

S1 + be/V1 + two times/three times + adj. -er/adv. -er + than + S2 (+ V2).

 

 

 

 

 

 

例 句

1. Lance’s watch is twice as expensive as mine.

  Lance’s watch costs twice as much as mine.

   The price of Lance’s watch is twice the price of mine.

      (Lance的手錶比我的貴上兩倍。)

2. Peter is three times older than Amy.

   Peter is three times as old as Amy (is).

  Peter is three times Amy’s age.  

(Peter的年齡是Amy的三倍。)

補 充

比較年紀的大小時亦可使用「數字 + // + older/younger + than + 主詞」。

例 句

My brother is two years older than I (am).  (我哥哥比我年長二歲。)

練 習

A箱比B箱重五倍。

  Box A is five times __________ __________ Box B.

  Box A is five times __________ __________ __________ Box B.

  Box A is five times the __________ __________ Box B.

7. lie + adj.  主詞補語

 

 

說 明

lie為連綴動詞,在其後接形容詞表示該主詞處於某種狀態。此類動詞尚有:feelsoundtastestandsmellfall

例 句

1. Kathy was frightened by the thunder at midnight so she lay awake all night long.  

2. Lesley stood still at the door, waiting for his classmates.

3. Your suggestion sounds not only exciting but creative.  

4. Your home-made pie tastes good. Mind if I ask the recipe?

 

引用地址 :: http://203.64.138.5/blog/rosacjlee/trackback/146
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B5 U3 :: 2010/09/19 21:00

U 3

Voc 1-12 p.53

2. eloquent = persuasive, voluble

The audience were deeply affected by the lecturer’s eloquent speech.

adj. (舉止等)富有表情的,生動描繪的

Her trembling hands were eloquent of her anxiety.

The photographs are an eloquent reminder of the horrors of war.

3. debate

There is a heated debate over abortion.

詞語搭配

be open to debate/be a matter for debate  有待爭論

Whether the policy is good is open to debate/a matter for debate.

(2)n. [C] (分贊成、反對兩方的)討論會,辯論會

The townspeople held/had/conducted a debate on building a factory by the river. (舉辦辯論會)

There is a televised debate on building power stations today. (電視辯論會)

4. toil

I've been toiling away at this essay all weekend. (work very hard for a long time at sth)

They toiled slowly up the hill. (緩慢費力的移動)

(n) 辛苦, 勞累[U]

He succeeded after years of toil.

(n) 苦工; 難事

That book is a toil to read.

5. sweat n. [U] 汗水

The children were bathed in sweat after playing basketball.

詞語搭配

be dripping with sweat  滿身大汗

Running in the sun, the athletes are dripping with sweat.

by the sweat of one’s brow  靠自己的努力

Hank learned to earn the money by the sweat of his brow.

be in a (cold) sweat  緊張的,害怕的

I woke up from the nightmare in a cold sweat.

no sweat  沒什麼,小事一樁 (spoken)

”Are you sure you can do it all by yourself?” “No sweat.”

sweat (v) 冒汗,流汗; (物體等)滲出水氣,附著水珠

The cheese sweated slightly soon after it was taken out of the refrigerator.

6. weary

(1)adj. 厭倦的,厭煩的

I’ve grown weary of hearing your complaints.

 

wearytiredexhausted都有表示「疲倦」之意:

weary指「令人疲勞地失去興趣和熱情」,例:

Some people were weary by the long wait.

tired為一般常用字,常指「因過分工作或長期做相同的事情,而耗盡精力或耐心,並產生無力感」,例:

The child got tired of the game very soon.

exhausted指的是「體力完全消耗而至精疲力盡」,例:

The runner is exhausted after the race.

(2)adj. 無聊的,乏味的

The passengers had a weary wait on the runway.

weary vt. 使厭倦,厭煩,疲倦,疲勞

Frank always wearies me with his complaints.

9. encounter

不期而遇,碰巧遇見 (= come across, bump into)

On the way home, I encountered my elementary school classmate.

11. yearn (v)

[literary] to have a strong desire for something, especially something that is difficult or impossible to get [= long]

yearn for

Hannah yearned for a child.

yearn to be/do something

Phil had yearned to be a pilot from an early age.

yearning (n) [literary]

a strong desire/longing for something

yearning for something

a yearning for travel

yearning to do something

He had a deep yearning to return to his home town.

12. dignity n. [U] 尊嚴

It is difficult to maintain one’s dignity during a quarrel.

dignify vt. 使尊貴,使增添光采;使冠冕堂皇

The President dignified our wedding with his presence.

I won’t dignify a cowardly act by calling it discretion. (謹慎;考慮周到)

dignified adj. 有尊嚴的,有威嚴的

Mr. Wang is a dignified old man and we all respect him.

She made a dignified departure.

Reading Line 1-28 p.48

Line 1: 此為as much...as 的等同比較用法。

Making a cake is as much fun as eating it.

1. apart from...    除了以外

【說明】這是個片語介詞,等於aside

fromapart from可用來表示「除了

外還有」,將其後的人事物包含在內,

相當於besidesin addition to;此片語

也可用來表示「除去」,不包含其後

提到的人事物,相當於except for

【例句】1. Apart from/Besides/In addition to English, Stella can also speak French.

2. Apart from/Besides/In addition to apples, Elsa bought me a loaf of bread.

3. Everyone is going to the field trip apart from/except for Eric.

2. It is + important/essential/necessary + that + S + (should) V....

【說明】    本句型的it為虛主詞,真正

的主詞是that引導的名詞子句,其主詞

補語為importantessential

necessaryurgentvital等形容詞者皆

可使用此句,本句型亦可代換為:It is

important/essential/necessary + for + S + to V....

【例句】1. It is necessary that we (should) save for a rainy day.

It is necessary for us to save for a rainy day. (我們必須未雨綢繆。)

2. It is important that everybody (should) obey the law.
It is important for everybody to obey the law. (人人守法是重要的。)

3. It is urgent that the patient (should) be sent to the hospital right away.
  (病人必須緊急送醫。)

personality traits  人格特質

personal charisma   個人魅力

temperament  氣質

ex: He has a romantic temperament.

他富有浪漫氣質。

disposition  性情

ex: He has a very friendly disposition.

他性情友善。

ex: George shows a disposition to quarrel. 喬治好吵架。 (傾向; 意向)

character 品格 品行

characteristics  特性, 特質, 特徵

3. warn sb. to V 警告或提醒某人做某事

【說明】 warn其它常見的用法還有:

warn sb. of sth.warn sb. that + S + V

「警告或提醒某人有某種危險」,warn

sb. against + N/V-­ing相當於warn sb. not

to V表示「警告或提醒某人提防某事或

不可做某事」。

【例句】1. The motorists were warned to drive more carefully on icy roads.

2. The mountaineers were warned not to climb the mountain when there was a typhoon.
The mountaineers were warned against climbing the mountain when there was a typhoon.

3. The police warned the motorists of possible traffic congestions.
The police warned the motorists that there might be traffic congestions.
the British
為「英國人」之意,「the + 表示國籍的形容詞」,指「…國的人民」例:the Dutch「荷蘭人」、the Spanish「西班牙人」、the Chinese「中國人」、the Japanese 「日本人」等。

另外,the也可加於形容詞、過去分詞、現在分詞之前,表示具有該詞性所表現的性質,通常用作複數名詞,表示「…的人們」,例:

the young= the young people  年輕人

the living and the dead  活人與死人

the elderly  老年人

the unemployed  失業的人

war-weary ”N + -weary”所形成的複合形容詞,表示「對…厭倦/厭煩的」例:love-weary「對愛情灰心的」,stress-weary「對壓力厭倦的」,politics-weary「對政治厭煩的」,work-weary「對工作厭倦的」,life-weary「對人生厭倦的」等。

4. work through                 處理(困難等)

【說明】意思相似的片語還有deal with

【例句】1. This workshop is designed to help the teens work through/deal with their sorrow.

2. After losing his son, Hugh took several months off to work through/deal with his  

grief.

3. Dennis often works through/deals with the difficulties with wisdom.

5. S + happen to + V....                恰巧

【說明】相當於S + V + by chance....,也

可改寫成另一句型:It happens/happened

+ that + S + V....

【例句】1. I happened to meet my uncle on my way home.
I met my uncle by chance on my way home.
It happened that I met my uncle on my way home.
2. My answer happened to satisfy the little girl's curiosity.
My answer satisfied the little girl's curiosity by chance.
It happened that my answer satisfied the little girl's curiosity.
3. David happened to be out when I dropped in on him.

補充sth. happen to sth./sb.表示「某事

生在某人身上」。

例句1. Ray has been absent for a few days. Something must have happened to him.
2. What's happened to the chair? There is paint all over it.
Pattern One p.60

Voc 13-23 p.55

13. evacuate vt. 撤離,疏散

With the approach of the destructive typhoon, the local residents were forced to evacuate from their hometown to safe areas.

14. sink

(vi.) 下沉,慢慢下移

‧I can see the evening sun sinking into the sea.

(vi.) (筋疲力竭地)癱倒

‧Sinking down on the sofa, Annie tried to catch her breath.

one’s heart sink: to lose hope or confidence

His heart sank the way it always did when she left him.

sink so low

How could he have sunk so low?

15. fleet (n)

fleeting (a) [usually before noun]

lasting for only a short time [= brief]:

a fleeting smile

*For one fleeting moment, Paula allowed herself to forget her troubles.

*I caught a fleeting glimpse of them as they drove past.

16. scandal

*A famous cram school teacher has recently been involved in an infidelity scandal.

*The scandal broke when the picture of him kissing a woman other than his wife appeared on the front page of a newspaper.

*The mayor has been at the centre of a political scandal.

17. stir

Stir a cup of cooked brown rice into the mixture. (糙米)

Give the mixture a good stir.

The crowd began to stir as they waited for the band to start.

The poem succeeds in stirring the imagination.

stir somebody to do something

The incident stirred students to protest.

18. lecture

(v) (n)告誡,訓誡; 講課,演講

We wish Mr. Smith would stop lecturing us.

The father gave his son a lecture on the importance of hard work.

I have to go to/attend ten lectures a week. (上課)

The professor gave/delivered a series of lectures on American history. (講課)

19. statistics統計學

Statistics is a branch of mathematics.

Statistics show that 50% of new businesses fail in their first year.

20. console (v) = comfort

vs condole (v), condolence(n) 哀悼; 同情

consolation

n. [U] 安慰慰藉; 有安慰作用的人、事物

It was some consolation to know that no one had died in the accident.

Allison’s daughter was a great consolation to her after her husband died.

consolatory adj. 安慰的,慰問的

a consolatory letter   慰問信

字辨

consolecomfortsoothe都有「安慰」之意,以下就它們的用法作區分:

console為比較正式的用詞,指「撫慰悲傷或失落感」。

She consoled herself with the fact that no one else had done well in the exam either.

comfort一字語意較親切,指「用仁慈、希望和鼓勵來減輕痛苦或悲傷」。

I tried, but nothing I said could comfort them.

soothe則是強調「以安慰鎮定,減輕悲痛、憤怒或激動,使其恢復到平靜的常態」。

Albert tried to soothe his girlfriend by saying sweet words.

21. spark

(1)n. [C] (usu. sing.) (品質或感情的)一丁點,絲毫

Jerry does not have a spark of interest in science.

(2)n. [C] 火花

sparks from the fire

electric sparks from a broken wire

vi. 冒火花; 引發,觸發

The police response sparked outrage in the community.

A discarded cigarette sparked a small brush fire.

The strike sparked (off) major riots in the city.

vt. 激發,引起

spark somebody's interest/hope/curiosity

22. divine

神的, 神性的; 神授的, 天賜的; 神聖的

People used to believe in the divine right of kings. 過去人們相信君權神授。

divine intervention/power/love

【古】極好的

The concert we attended last night was simply divine.

23. coherent (a) coherence (n)

The teacher gave my composition a low mark because it lacked coherence.

An overall theme will help to give your essay coherence.

Reading p.49 line 29-58

6. at any price               不惜任何代價地

【說明】相當於at any costat all costs

【例句】

1. The doctor tried to save the patient at any price/at any cost/at all costs.

2. Jerry made up his mind to carry out his promise at any price/at any cost/at all costs.

3. Laura made her sons receive the best education at any price/at any cost/at all costs.

7. stop... from + V-­ing 阻止....;使..無法..

【說明】意思相近的片語有prevent/keep...from + V-­ing

【例句】

1. The heavy rain stopped/prevented/kept us from going out.

2. The thick fog stopped/prevented/kept the airplanes from taking off.

8. convince + sb. + that + S + V 使某人確信

【說明】相當於

persuade + sb. + that + S + V;

convince/persuade sb. of sth;

sb. + be convinced/persuaded + that + S V

of sth.

【例句】1. Jason cannot convince/persuade his girlfriend that he is honest.
Jason cannot convince/persuade his girlfriend of his honesty.

2. We are convinced/persuaded that Erica is safe.
We are convinced/persuaded of Erica's safety.

3. Tina convinced/persuaded me that she was poor.
Tina convinced/persuaded me of her poverty.

 

9. take part in sth.                          參加

【說明】相當於participate in sth.

join (in) sth.

【例句】1. All the students took part/participated/joined (in) the relay race.

2. Tom is too busy to take part/participate/join (in) the speech contest.

3. The gymnast's ambition is to take part/participate/join (in) the Olympic Games.

 

*a sense of glory 榮耀感

詞語搭配

a sense of balance  平衡感

a sense of beauty  美感

a sense of direction  方向感

a sense of humor  幽默感

a sense of responsibility  責任感

a sense of achievement  成就感

 

Evacuation of Dunkirk

19405月,二次世界大戰戰況激烈,英法聯軍在歐陸戰場慘敗,盧森堡、荷蘭、比利時先後投降,德軍攻入法國境內。此時,約有40萬的大批英法部隊被圍困在敦克爾克 (Dunkirk) 附近。如果這批部隊被殲滅的話,對於英國將是致命的打擊,於是邱吉爾決定發動一個「發電機作戰計畫」(Operation Dynamo),動員所有的船隻和飛機將這些部隊撤回英國。從526晚上開始,一直到64,英法聯軍一方面抵禦德軍的陸、空侵襲,一方面進行緊急撤退,結果成功地撤走了將近34萬人。雖然,這些部隊的所有重裝備都丟在法國,而且「撤退」實際上並不光彩,但邱吉爾仍藉著這個撤退計畫的成功,在國會中發表了慷慨激昂的演說,重申英國會奮戰到底,絕不屈服,直到光榮的勝利到來。後來事實也證明了,這些搶救回來的精銳部隊,對於日後的對德作戰,的確貢獻良多。

10. appeal to sth.                  訴諸某事物

【說明】appeal to除了表示「求助於,訴

」之外,sth. appeal to sb.也可表示「某

事對某人有吸引力或使某人感興趣」。

【例句】1. When peace negotiation failed, they appealed to war.

2. If you refuse to return the money to us, we will appeal to the law.

3. The French often appeal to a strike to solve their problems.

4. The idea of taking an airplane has never appealed to John.

Sounds appealing! = sounds good

*When the going gets tough, the tough gets going. 當處境時局變得艱難,只有堅忍不拔的人可以持續前進。

11.Review: S + Aux not V + until....
   → It be not until...that + S + Aux V/V....     直到

【說明】本句型是用It is...that....的分裂

句結構來強調 “not until...”that後面的子

句不必改為倒裝句。

【例句】

1. I cannot go home until 6 p.m.
It is not until 6 p.m. that I can go home.

2. I didn't go to bed until I had finished my homework.
It was not until I had finished my homework that I went to bed.

3. Monica didn't realize the importance of health until she fell sick.
It was not until Monica fell sick that she realized the importance of health.

【練習】

1.直到錢用光了,Amy才願意回家。
It was ______ ______ Amy had used up all her money that she was willing to go home.

2.父母過世,子女才知道虧欠他們有多少。
Children will not know how much they owe to their parents ______ they pass away.

補充本句型亦可用倒裝句型 “Not until...+ Aux/be + S + V....”來強調,否定副詞置於句首時其後主要子句須倒裝。

例句

1. The meeting was not over until 4 p.m.
It was not until 4 p.m. that the meeting was over.
Not until 4 p.m. was the meeting over.        2. Not until Aaron comes can you go away.        3. Not until all the passengers got aboard did the plane take off.

12. put...into words          表達出來

【例句】1. I owe you so much that I can hardly put my gratitude into words.

2. The natural beauty of the Taroko Gorge cannot be put into words.

3. Kathy was overjoyed to hear the good news, so she was unable to put her pleasure into words.

Pattern 2 p.62

引用地址 :: http://203.64.138.5/blog/rosacjlee/trackback/144
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B5 U2 :: 2010/09/19 13:10

U2

Voc 1-13

1. budget

budget deficit 預算赤字

over budget  超出預算地()

on/within budget  符合預算地()

under budget  在預算之內地()

balance the budget  平衡預算

The project was completed within budget.

Feature movies always run over budget.

4. frame

Lenny kept her wedding picture in a silver frame.

5. limited

My mother limits my time of playing computer games to 30 minutes a day. (將…限制在…)

There is a limit to everything. (對…的限制)

  There is no limit on the budget for holding the party. (…的限額)

比較: limit (n) vs. limitation (n)

limit強調界線 限度 範圍 極限

limitation強調the act or process of limiting “動作或過程或是有限的能力=weakness”

  He'd reached the limit of his patience.

  Our finances are already stretched to the limit (=we do not have any extra money).

  There's no limit to what you can do if you try.

  Despite the limitations of the survey, it did suggest some general trends.

  It's a good little car, but it has its limitations.

比較 limitrestrainrestrict

limit表示「設下限制」。例:

My father limited himself to three cigarettes a day.

restrain指「抑制感情、慾望、行動等」。例:

Emma restrained her anger with effort.

restrict則指「限制、禁止人的活動或範圍」,其限制程度比restrain強烈。例:

      The law restricted the ownership of firearms.

6. chief

The Queen is Commander in Chief of the British armed forces.

7. political

politically correct 政治正確

It’s not politically correct to assume presidents and chairmen are males.

politics

(1)n. [U] 政治學 (= political science)

a degree in politics

(2)n. [U] 政治

Following his father’s step, Chi-Chung Chen decided to go into/enter politics. (從政)

politician通常表示「為一己之私或黨政利益而競選的政客」,帶有輕蔑之意。而statesman是指「以國家人民福祉為己任,有能又有德的政治家」。

A politician thinks of the next election; a statesman, of the next generation.

8. position

The position has already been filled. (職缺已滿)

If you were in my position, you would have done the same.

詞語搭配

be (not) in a position to V /沒能力做

àI am not in a position to advise you since I don’t know the first thing about real estate.

9. outstanding adj. 傑出的

1.      凸出的

outstanding ears 招風耳

2.      顯著的; 傑出的

She is an outstanding actress.

3.      未解決的; 未完成的; 未償付的

The outstanding debts must be paid by the end of the month.

補 充

stand out among/from/above... 優於

‧Rebecca’s singing apparently stood out among other contestants.

10. innovative vs.

inventive, creative, original

11. Siren 【希神】半人半鳥的女海妖, 以歌聲吸引水手並使船隻遇難.引申形容迷人的女人, 妖婦

12. outrage n. [U] 憤怒

Frank left the meeting earlier to show his outrage at/over the final decision. (對…的憤怒)

Because of the public outrage, the prime minister finally resigned from his post. (眾怒)

outrage vt. 激怒,使憤慨

Many Hong Kong citizens were outraged by the way the Manila police handled the Philippines bus siege.

outrageous (adj.) extremely unfair, offensive or insulting

The outrageous language of the racists is really unbearable.

It is outrageous that the princess should spend that much money on accessories while the people live in such misery.

13.        trauma 1.【醫】外傷, 傷口 2. (感情等方面的)創傷

emotional traumas of death, divorce, childhood abuse

p. 22 reading line 1-32

1. to one's + 情緒名詞 感到的是

說明】此為副詞片語,可置於句首、句中或句尾,其後常接的名詞有:surprise, amazement, delight, regret, astonishment, disappointment, embarrassment, relief, joy, sorrow, disgust等。

【例句】1. These foreigners, to my surprise, can speak Chinese fluently.
(令我驚訝的是,這些外籍人士會講流利的中文。)

2. To Cindy's great joy, her only son came home safe and sound.
(Cindy欣喜過望的是,她的獨子平安無恙地回來了。)

3. Our grandfather passed away last night, much to our sorrow.
(我們感到非常悲傷的是,我們的祖父昨晚往生了。)

2. consist of... 構成

【說明】相當於contain...be made up of...be composed of...

【例句】1. My class consists of/contains/is made up of/is composed of forty students.
 (我的班級由四十個學生組成。)

*超過45個學生的班級不好帶。

A class consisting of/containing/made up of/composed of more than 45 students is hard to manage.

2. The Miramar shopping mall consists of/contains/is made up of/is composed of over 200 stores and restaurants.

(美麗華購物中心有超過200家的商店和餐廳。)

補充consist in...相當於lie in...表示在於」。

【例句】Happiness consists/lies in satisfaction/contentment.(知足常樂)

3. before long   不久

【說明】這是可置於句首或句尾的副詞片語,等於soon,常用於未來或過去簡單句,它也可改寫成:It will not be/was not long before....

【例句】1. My dad will come home before long.

          My dad will come home soon.
   It will not be long before my dad comes home.

2. Before long the missing child was found.
  Soon the missing child was found.
  It was not long before the missing child was found.
3. I hope that we can meet again before long.

4. be against + N/V-­ing   反對

【說明】相當於be opposed to + N/V-ing

object to + N/V-ing

disapprove of + N/V-ing

表示「贊成」片語為be for + N/V-ing

be in favor of + N/V-ing

approve of + N/V-ing

【例句】1. Mark used to be against/be opposed to/object to/disapprove of smoking and drinking.

2. Was Mr. Smith for Amanda's proposal or against it?
3. The villagers were opposed to the plan to build an amusement park in the village.

Ex: 我反對溺愛小孩。
   I ______ ______ spoiling children.

5. S + never + ... + without + ­ing....     不曾而不

【說明】本句型是雙重否定變成肯定的用法,意思為「每」相當於Whenever / Every time/ Each time + S + V1, S + V2....

【例句】1. Kevin never comes here without giving me a present.
   Whenever Kevin comes here, he gives me a present.

 2. Careless people never do their work without making mistakes.
    Each time careless people do their work, they make mistakes.
 3. My husband never leaves for work without kissing me goodbye.
  Every time my husband leaves for work, he kisses me goodbye.

Pattern One p. 36

p. 30 Vocabulary 14-26

14. optimistic ßà pessimistic

Narcissistic 自戀的; 自我崇拜的

Sadistic 殘酷成性的

參見p.36

Optimism/optimist ßà pessimism/pessimist

activism/activist  激進主義/激進主義者

realism/realist  寫實主義/寫實主義者

nationalism/nationalist 民族主義/民族主義者

terrorism/terrorist  恐怖主義/恐怖主義者

symbolism/symbolist  象徵主義/象徵主義者

humanism/humanist  人道主義/人道主義者

16. significant

(1)adj. 重要的 (←→ insignificant)

My grandmother had a significant influence on me.

(2)adj. (數量等)相當的,顯著的 (←→ insignificant)

There has been a significant improvement on Bobby’s writing.

(3)adj. 意義深遠的

Tim’s girlfriend gave him a significant smile after opening the gift.

17. director主管

The director of our department is very picky; we are extremely tensed when working with him.

18. admire 欽佩 崇拜 à admiration

adore 熱愛 喜愛 à adoration

admire somebody from afar

literary to be attracted to someone, without letting them know

19. insist (v.)

Nick insisted on leaving earlier.

The doctor insisted that Robin (should) be hospitalized.

Mike insisted that he had nothing to do with that murder case.

insistent (adj.) 強烈主張的,堅決要求的;持續的

The librarian is insistent that people should keep their voice down.

The insistent ringing of the doorbell was really annoying.

22.fantasy n. [U][C] 幻想,想像

Betty lives in her fantasy world. She is out of touch with reality.

Young girls usually have romantic fantasies of love.

補 充

fantasy是「擺脫現實束縛、大膽奔放的空想」,亦可指奇幻的想法或作品。fancy是「脫離現實幻想,從而創造出新奇、虛幻的事物」,帶有輕鬆詼諧之感。

especially British English = liking, wish

a feeling, especially one that is not particularly strong or urgent, that you like someone or want to have something

take a fancy to somebody/something (=decide that you like someone or want to have something)

Mr Hill took a real fancy to Clara.

Wanting to go to Mexico was just a passing fancy.

亦可做vadj

imagination是指「想像未曾看見或實際上不存在的事物」,是指想像時最廣泛的說法。

fantastic (a.口語) awesome, excellent, wonderful

23. sheer

adj. 完全的,純粹的

I asked her the question out of sheer curiosity.

Mr. Chen won the jackpot by sheer luck.

24. commercial n. [C] (電視、廣播的)商業廣告

Some dog lovers complained that the dogs were abused during the shooting of certain commercials.

相關字

advertisement 也是廣告,但除了電視、廣播之外,還包括報紙、雜誌等平面媒體。

The company put an advertisement in the paper to promote its new product.

p. 24 line 33-67

6. look on the bright side (of things) (事情的)光明面,樂觀

Every cloud has a silver lining.

ßà look on the dark side of things

7. at all times                                     總是

all the time = at all times

from time to time = sometimes

in no time = very soon

9. Why is it that...?           是為什麼?

【說明】這是由It is...that....的強調句型構成的疑問句,It是虛主詞用來代替that引導的子句,等於How is it that...?

【例句】1. Why is it that the boy has so much money?
       How is it that the boy has so much money?

Why does the boy have so much money?

2. Why is it that Iris keeps silent even though she is accused of stealing Jane's necklace?
Why does Iris keep silent even though she is accused of stealing Jane's necklace?

3. Why is it that Brian wears his hair long?

10. Review: S1+ command/ advise/ order/ request/ require/ suggest/ insist + that +S2 (+ should) + be/V....

【說明】這類表示「命令」(command order)、「建議」(advisesuggest)、「要求」(requestrequire)、「堅持」(insist)等的動詞其後須用此句型,其助動詞should常省略,而這些動詞轉變成名詞時,其後的同位語名詞子句也必須用此句型。但是若是所陳述的事為事實,或是這些動詞做其他意思解時,其後的that子句則用一般的直說法。

【例句】1. We insist that children (should) be taught how to behave themselves.
2. It was Jeff's suggestion that the meeting (should) be dismissed earlier.

3. Ryan insisted that his wife was the woman he loved most.

→ insist在此為「堅持認為、強調」之意,而不是表示「堅持某人做某事」,且他太太是他最愛為事實,因此用直說法。

Our boss ordered that every clerk ______ his best to serves our customers.
The president gave a command that these earthquake victims
_______ good care of.

補充insist為不及物動詞,其後除了接子句外也可用 insist on/upon + N/V-­ing

例句1. Ms. Huang insists on/upon the importance of education.
Ms. Huang insists that education is important.
*insist
在此為「堅持認為、強調」之意,用直說法

2. Andy insisted on/upon his daughter's honest.
Andy insisted that his daughter (should) be honest.
→ insist在此表示「堅持某人做某事」,其後用(should) + be/V

12. remain/be true to sth. 堅持/信守某事

【說明】意思相近的用法有stick to sthbe loyal/faithful to sth.

【例句】1. A man of his word will remain/be true to his promise.
A man of his word will stick to his promise.
A man of his word will be loyal/faithful to his promise.

remains true to one’s principles/word

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  • richard | 2019/11/18 22:02 | PERMALINK | ,修改/刪除 | 回覆

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  • HP m15w setup | 2019/12/20 17:56 | PERMALINK | ,修改/刪除 | 回覆

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  • HP m29w setup | 2019/12/20 18:30 | PERMALINK | ,修改/刪除 | 回覆

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  • Pavan | 2020/01/16 20:12 | PERMALINK | ,修改/刪除 | 回覆

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B4 Unit Eleven :: 2010/05/26 14:53

U 11

p. 204 Voc 1-13

1. teardrop n. [C] 淚珠,淚滴

tear n. [C] 眼淚

 Everyone was moved to tears by his story.

   (感動落淚)

 After hearing the news, Sharon burst into tears and ran out. (突然哭了起來)

4. incomparable adj. 無可匹敵的,舉世無雙的

 The singer has incomparable voice.

compare

(1) vt. 比較,對照

 The professor asked his students to compare the two translations.

 The teacher compared the article with another. He found that they had much in common. (拿…和…比較)

Compared to our small flat, Bill's house seemed like a palace. (拿…和…比較)

(2) vt. 把…比喻作…

 The critic compared the writer's works to Shakespeare's.

 Many people compare life to a stage play.

comparison

(1) n. [U][C] 比較(尤指比較不同處)

 In comparison to her bother, Shelly is much more diligent. (和…作比較)

 The article makes a comparison between Paris and New York. (將…相互比較)

The old man drew a comparison between life in the concentration camp and life in prison. (將…互作比較)

5. material

(1) n. [C] 材料,原料,布料(= fabric)

 Oil is the raw material for plastic. (原料)

Videos often make good teaching material.

 This dress is made of soft material.

6. construction

(1) n. [U] 建造

 The house is still under construction. (建構中)

(2) n. [C] 建築物

 Walking along the river, you can see several constructions built in 1890s.

construct

(1) vt. 建造

 The Taj Mahal is constructed of marble. (以…建造而成)

(2) vt. 建構(理論),編造(句子、謊言、故事等)

construct a theory/sentence/lie/story

建構理論/造句/編造謊言/編故事

7. imprison vt. 監禁,幽禁,使入獄

 To everyone's relief, the murderer was imprisoned.

imprisonment n. [U] 監禁,入獄

 The serial killer was sentenced to life imprisonment. (無期徒刑)

8. dust

(1) n. [U] 塵土,灰塵

 A cloud of dust rose as the car drove off. (一陣塵土飛揚)

(2) n. [U] 灰塵,塵埃

 The piano was covered with dust. à a dusty room

9. sigh vi. 嘆息,嘆氣

 Knowing that he had missed the opportunity, the man sighed with regret.

sigh n. [C] 嘆息

 After reading her daughter's letter, Mrs. White breathed a sigh of relief. (鬆一口氣)

12. architectural adj. 有關建築的,建築學的

 This building is famous for its unique architectural style.

architecture

(1) n. [U] 建築學,建築術

 Andrew is majoring in architecture.

(2) n. [U] 建築式樣,建築風格

 This church is a good example of Gothic architecture.

architect n. [C] 建築師

 Kyle is the chief architect of the new skyscraper.

 John is a famous landscape architect.

   (景觀設計師)

11. structure

(1) n. [C] 建築物,結構體

 The new parking tower will be a structure of steel and concrete.

(2) n. [U] 構造,結構,組織

 Anthropologists have studied the structure of these ancient societies.

 We know a lot about the structure of genes now.

structure vt. 系統安排,精心安排 (= organize)

 He carefully structured each scene of the play.

structural adj. 結構上的,構造上的,組織上的

 In recent years, Taiwan has been experiencing major structural changes in the economy.

12. awe n. [U] 敬畏

 All the tourists gazed in/with awe at the great pyramid. (敬畏地)

 The students were/stood in awe of the professor. (對…敬畏)

awe vt. 使…起敬畏之心

 The public was awed by the presence of the president.

13. quality

(1) n. [C] 特色,特質

 Linda has great personal qualities such as honesty and generosity.

(2) n. [U] 品質

 to be of good/poor/top quality 品質好//優良

詞語搭配

quality of life  生活品質

quality control  品管

Pattern p. 210

p. 199 line 1-23

those who表示「凡是…的人」,後面接的通常是限定

性的形容詞子句。those who可與 people who代換

God helps those who help themselves.

God helps people who help themselves.

one who 的用法

one who適用於主詞為單數名詞的情況下,表示「任何一個人…」可與any one who以及whoever替換。例:

One who is honest deserves respect.

Anyone who is honest deserves respect.

Whoever is honest deserves respect.

 

have been to....                   曾經去過…                                               

  此用法與"have gone to..."結構相似,意義卻不同,have been to表示「去過某地,而且已經回來」,have gone to表示「去了且仍在該地」。

例 句 1. So far, we have been to the zoo three times.

(到目前為止,我們去過動物園三次。)

2. A-Ming has gone to New York on business.                                (阿民已到紐約出差去了。)

 

S + be familiar with sth                對…很熟悉                                         

說 明 可寫成sth. + be familiar to + sb.sth. + be well-known to + sb.

例 句 1. We are familiar with the local customs here.

®The local customs are familiar/well-known to us.

(我們熟知本地的習俗。)

2. Nancy's mother is familiar with her voice.

  ®Nancy's voice is familiar/well-known to her mother.

  (Nancy的媽媽對她的聲音很熟悉。)

3. The whole village is familiar with the ancient legend.

  ®This is an old ancient legend which is familiar/well-known to the whole village. 

  (這是全村都熟知的古代傳說。)

 

Such + be + N(P) + that + S + V....                                                       

說 明 原句型為:"N/NP + be + such + that + S + V...",為了強調語氣,把such置於句首而把前半句改成倒裝句。視句子情況還可改寫為"so...that...."的句型。

例 句 1. Such was Mr. Kao's generosity that he gave all his money to the poor.

®Mr. Kao's generosity was such that he gave all his money to the poor.

®Mr. Kao was so generous that he gave all his money to the poor.

(高先生是如此慷慨。把所有的錢都捐給窮人。)

2. Such is the importance of health that we cannot pay too much attention to it.

®So important is health that we cannot pay much attention to it.

(健康是那麼重要,因此我們愈重視它愈好。)

Voc 14-26 p.206

14. aggressive vs. ambitious / driven 積極 有企圖心

15. arrogant vs proud / conceited (formal) / overbearing (傲慢專橫) / snobbish (勢利眼的;自負的) / self-centered

16. remarkable adj. 非凡的,引人注目的

remark vt. 談到,評論

    Mark Twain once remarked that "The best way to cheer yourself is try to cheer someone else up."

The judge remarked on every participant's performance. (對…評論)

remark n. [C] 意見,看法,言論

 Don't make rude remarks about something you don't know. (對…發表看法)

18. accessible

(1) adj. 可到達的,可進入的

 The public library is built in the center of the town, which makes it accessible to everyone.

(2) adj. 可取得的,可使用的

 Information is easily accessible through the Internet.

access

(1) n. [U] 路徑,通道

 Only the manager has access to the room.

(2) n. [U] (使用的)機會、權利

 You have to fill in this form to gain access to the system.

19. adore vt. 愛慕,敬慕

adorable adj. 討人喜歡的

 The baby is adorable and everyone likes him very much.

20. glimmer 微弱的閃光,微光,微弱的跡象

a glimmer of hope/smile 一絲希望/微笑

glimmer vi. 發出微光,閃爍

 The headlights of the car glimmered in the distance.

21. spill

 (1) vi. (光線)輕灑、灑入

Moonlight spilt/spilled through the crack into the room.

 (2) vt.; vi. 使(液體)灑出、溢出

Joey slipped and the coffee spilt all over the carpet.

22. flush n. [C] (usu. sing.) 臉紅,紅暈 (= blush)

 The flush on her face reveals her real feelings.

flush vi. 臉紅 (= blush)

 Daniel flushed with embarrassment, but said nothing.

25. naked adj. 裸身的,赤裸的

詞語搭配

the naked eye  肉眼

 With the equipment, we can see a lot of microscopic organisms that are invisible to the naked eye.

 26. roam  vt. 閒逛,漫步

 Good parents should not let their children roam the streets. (在街上閒晃)

Line 24-47 p.200

 

if not...then...                 如果不是…就是…       

There were only two persons who would make such a messif not my husband, then my son.

說 明 本片語是表示讓步的插入語,常置於句尾。

例 句 1. This hotel will serve at least one mealif not supper, then breakfast.

(這家旅館至少提供一餐,如果不是晚餐,那就是早餐。)

2. Martha is sure to come on time, if not by bus, then by taxi.

(Martha一定會準時來,即使不搭計程車,也會搭公車。)

The student's parents have to show up for the PTA meeting, __________ both ________ at least either.

 

no other + N1 + be/V + as/so + adj./adv. + as + N2 

注意1: other 為形容詞,其後接單數名詞 

2:第一個as可用so

No other animal in the world is as/so large as the blue whale.

To John, no other sport is as/so exciting as American football.

No other magazine appeals to me as/so much as Time magazine.

To Nancy, no other singer sings as/so well as Jay Chou.

說 明 此句型為利用原級比較來表示最高級的用法。還可用比較級來表示,為:

例 句 1. John is the tallest player in the team.

®No other player in the team is as/so tall as John.

®No other player in the team is taller than John. 

(John是隊裡最高的球員。)

2. Tom ran fastest in his class.

®No other boy in his class ran as/so fast as Tom.

®No other boy in his class ran faster than Tom. 

(Tom在他班上跑最快。)

 

There is no need (for sb.) to + V....      不必去… 

說 明 可改寫為以下句型:  

it is needless/not necessary (for sb.) to + V....

S + don't/doesn't/didn't + need + to +V....

S need not + V....

例 句 1. There is no need (for us) to work on weekends.

®It is needless/not necessary (for us) to work on weekends.

®We need not/don't need to work on weekends. 

(週末不必工作。)

2. There was no need for Julie to do the shopping.

®It was needless/not necessary for Julie to do the shopping.

®Julie didn't need to do the shopping. 

(Julie不用去採買。)

A lie in B                      A在於B                                                 

說 明 A通常為表示概念、狀態、性質的抽象名詞,B可為普通名詞或抽象名詞,此用法近似於A consists in B

The beauty of the picture consists in / lies in its balance of colors.

這幅畫的美在於其色彩的調和。

Tolerance consists in / lies in respecting the opinions of others.

寬容在於尊重別人的意見。

例 句 1. Happiness lies in contentment. (知足常樂)

2. Success often lies in working hard.(成功常在於勤勞)

3. I used to have a hard time communicating my parents. The difficulty lay in the generation gap.  (過去我一向很難和父母溝通。困難就在於代溝。)

 

pile up                   堆疊,堆放                                                   

*此片語 主動 被動語法皆適用

例 句 1. Sandy spent lots of money buying jewels, so her debts piled up.

(Sandy花許多錢去買珠寶,所以她債臺高築。)

2. Watt's work has piled up; that is, he has a pile of work to do.

(Watt的工作堆積如山;也就是說,他有很多工作要做。)

3. More and more work is piling up on my desk.

(有越來越多的工作堆積在我的桌上。)

Ex:房裡髒衣服堆積如山,我好似住在垃圾場。

With so many dirty clothes piling up in my room, it seems I am living in a garbage dump.

 

補 充

本文為一旅遊記事,作者善以擬人化的手法描述泰姬瑪哈陵的美。例如,作者在第三段以eleganttender等描述人的形容詞來讚揚泰姬陵的美;另外,除了形容詞外,其它的詞句如sunlight and clouds adore her countenance, a pink flush appears instead亦為擬人化手法的佳例。試著練習找出作者利用了哪些擬人化的手法,以增進對文章的敏銳度。

 

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B4 Unit Ten :: 2010/05/20 09:43

U10 Voc 1-10 p. 187

(1) vt. 養活(家人等)

Mr. Lin worked hard in order to feed his family.

(2) vt. 餵養

Many tourists are feeding bread to the doves.

(3) vi. 以…為食

The bird feeds on fruits and flowers.

詞語搭配

feed off 因…而壯大

She feed off the work and reputation of others.

feed up (用大量的食物)養胖、養壯

The mother fed up her child with a lot of fresh vegetables and meat.

feed one's face 大吃一頓,吃得太撐

Leon fed his face in the party and couldn't walk at all.

The suspect finally confessed the crime he had committed after hours of interrogation.(坦白承認所犯的罪)

The newly-elected mayor vowed to crack down on crimes. (打擊犯罪)

be convicted of…  被判  

be charged with...  被指控(犯了罪)

be accused of...  被控告(犯了罪或做了不道德的事)

The banker was convicted of fraud and sentenced to five years in prison.

7. identity n. [U][C] 身分

The princess does not like to reveal her identity when traveling abroad. (暴露身分)

A tourist should use his passport to establish his identity when inquired by a policeman.(證實身分)

identity/identification/ID card 身分證

identification

(1) n. [U] 身分證明 (= ID)

Please show your identification before entering the building.

(2) n. [U] 認出

Quick identification of the suspect helped solve the murder in a short time.

(3) n. [U] 認同()

I have emotional identification with the poor girl in the movie.

identify

(1) vt. 認出,識別

The vagabond has been identified as the missing entrepreneur.

(2) vi. 有同感,認同

Most teenagers can identify with the characters in his novels.

(對…產生認同、共鳴)

consequently adv. 因此,所以 (= as a result, therefore, thus, hence, accordingly)

consequence

(1) n. [C] 結果,後果

We are sure to suffer/take/face the consequences of every wrong decision we have made. (承擔後果)

The price of the real estate in this neighborhood dropped as a consequence of over expansion. (由於…)

(2) n. [U] 重要性

The content of the gift is of little consequence; it's the heart that counts.

(無關緊要的)

9. shiver vi. 顫抖,發抖

相關字詞

tremble vi. 因情緒、寒冷而顫抖

shudder vi. 因恐懼、寒冷、厭惡而短暫地顫抖

quiver vi. 因情緒而微微顫抖

10. pity

(1) n. [U] 同情,憐憫 (= compassion, sympathy)

We all take/have pity on Jenny's wretched soul. (同情)

I feel pity for those who suffer from starvation in Africa. (同情)

(2) n. (sing.) 遺憾,可惜的事

It's a pity (that) you cannot come along.

(可惜的是…)

            What a pity/shame! (多可惜啊!)

 

Reading p.181 line 1-31

 

By the time S + V-ed, S + had + V-en                                              

 

說 明 By the time當連接詞,引導表示時間的副詞子句,其意思等於before。若指涉過去的某個時間點,主要句動詞用過去完成式,若指涉未來的時間,主要句則用未來完成式(見例句3)

例 句 1. The train had left by the time/before we hurried to the station.

(在我們趕到車站之前,火車已經開走了。)

2. By the time/Before Gill got up this morning, her parents had gone to work.

(Gill的父母在她今晨起床之前就去上班了。)

3. By the time/Before my parents come back tonight, I'll have my homework done. 

(今晚爸媽回來之前,我會把功課做完。)

Line 11: It seemed that the innkeeper didn’t like my appearance.

= The innkeeper didn’t seem to like my appearance.

reach out to sb.    對某人伸出()                             

 

  相當於give/lend somebody a handreach (out) for表示「伸手去拿…」。

例 句 1. My parents reached out to me when I was in need of help.

®My parents gave/lent me a hand when I was in need of help.

(我父母在我需要幫助時對我伸出援手。)

2. The brave soldier reached out to the drowning lady and saved her life.

(這個勇敢的軍人對溺水的婦人伸出援手,救她一命。)

3. The little girl reaches (out) for the candy on the shelf.

(這個小女孩伸手去拿櫃子上的糖果。)

 

S + be + the last + N + to V/that-clause                                                     

 

說 明 last當形容詞時表示「最不可能…,最不希望…」之意。

例 句 1. Cheating in the exam is the last thing that I would ever expect my students to do. 

(考試作弊是我最不希望學生做的事。)

2. David is the last student to cheat in the exam.

(大衛是最不可能在考試時作弊的學生。)

3. Parents are the last people to give up on their children.

(父母親是最不可能放棄自己子女的人。)

 

Line 23: Hungry and cold, I was left to shiver in the dark.

(1) 本句為分詞構句,是由兩個主詞相同的句子合併而來的。原句可改寫為:I was 

hungry and cold. I was left to shiver in the darkness.

(2) leave sb.... = sb. be left.... 使某人處於…狀態

leave其後的受詞補語可為adj.to VVing

所以本句 I was left to shiver 亦可改為I was left shivering

to V強調表事實 Ving強調動作正在進行

 The disaster left the victims helpless.

  The victims were left helpless due to the disaster.

 The homeless were left to die on the street.

 The late student was left standing outside the classroom.

 

take/have pity on sb/sth  同情某人/某事

 

說 明 等於feel pity for

例 句 1. The doctor took/had great pity on the patient and his family.

The doctor felt pity for the patient and his family. (這個醫生很同情病人和其家屬。)

2. The living have to take/have pity on the misfortune of the deceased.

(生者必須同情死者的不幸。)

 

Line 29: Having the good silverware…. placed on the table, he said to me,…

此處為 have + O + pp 使役動詞寫在分詞構句中的用法,非完成式。

Having the work done in two days, the manager took the rest of the week off to have a vacation.

 

Pattern one p.191

 

Voc 11-20 p. 189

14. misfortune n. [U] 厄運,不幸

Misfortunes never come singly.

【諺】禍不單行。= Misery loves company.

fortune

(1) n. [U] 運氣

Fortune favors the brave.

【諺】幸運眷顧勇者。

(2) n. [C] 財富

make a fortune (發大財)

fortunate adj. 幸運的

I was fortunate to have so many friends caring about me.

unfortunate adj. 不幸的

Mark lost his leg in an unfortunate accident.

unfortunately adv. 不幸地

Unfortunately, Sam wasn't admitted to his ideal university.

15. flip

vi. 快速翻閱

I flipped through the textbook before the exam started.

18. vanish vi. (突然)消失

The police failed to catch the thief for he vanished into the crowd.

相關字詞

disappear vi. 消失(一般用字)

My mother couldn't find her car key. It has disappeared.

fade vi. 逐漸消失

The music faded away at the end of the movie.

20. commit

(1) vt. ()

The man committed murder and was sentenced to death. (犯謀殺罪)

(2) vt. 作出承諾

The government committed itself to environmental protection. (承諾要做…)

 

Words for Recognition

5. bishop n. [C] 主教

補 充

clergy (pl.) (尤指基督教的)神職人員,牧師

priest (基督教以外的)聖職人員,僧侶

minister (新教的)牧師

pastor (尤指非英國國教的)牧師

pope 教宗

6. silverware n. [U] 銀器,銀製餐具

補 充

"-ware" 加在名詞之後,構成表示「(用…製的)物品,器皿;(用於…的)器具」之意的名詞,如:

glassware 玻璃器皿  chinaware 陶瓷器

hardware 金屬製品  kitchenware 廚房用具              tableware 餐具

另外,"-ware" 也可構成表示「用於操作電腦的東西」,如:

software 軟體     hardware 硬體

 

Idioms and Phrases

3. cast out 驅逐,逐出 (= expel)

The Devil used to be an angel who was cast out from heaven.

 

常見的罪行(crime)有:

theft

偷竊

smuggling

走私

murder, homicide

謀殺

vandalism

毀損公物

kidnapping

綁架

arson

縱火

theft又分:

shoplifting

順手牽羊

robbery

搶劫

burglary

非法闖入竊盜

embezzlement

盜用,侵占

larceny

竊盜

looting

搶劫

以程度來分的話通常分成:

felony

重罪

misdemeanor

輕罪

其他相關單字有:

witness

證人,

目擊者

confession

承認(罪行)

suspect

嫌犯

parole

假釋

arrest

逮捕

sentence

判刑

detention

拘留

charges

指控,控告

detain

扣留

forensic science

刑事鑑定

(take into) custody

拘留

habitual offender

慣犯

probation

緩刑

fugitive

逃犯

prosecute

起訴

hit-and-run

肇事逃逸的

attempted murder

殺人未遂

investigation

調查

bail

保釋

juvenile delinquent

青少年罪犯

 

Reading line 32 - 61 p. 182

instead of...            不…而 

說 明 用法相當於rather than...in place of...,其中,rather than後接原形動詞,此外,instead也可當副詞,放在兩句之間或句尾。

例 句 1. Amy went to school on foot instead of/rather than by bus.

®Amy walked to school, instead of/in place of taking a bus.

®Amy walked to school, rather than take a bus.  (Amy沒搭公車而走路去上學。)

2. Instead of doing my homework, I watched TV all night.

®I didn't do my homewor